DIY Electrical Tips for Homeowners
Working with electrical components in your home can seem daunting at first, especially considering how sophisticated electrical systems can be in specific applications. Still, there are many simple tasks and repairs homeowners can undertake that are budget-friendly.
Today, most homes in the United States are powered by a utility provider’s meter, which flows to a 200-amp circuit breaker, then a breaker box, and then various circuits throughout the property. Most devices–and outlets–work within the 120-volt range, except for major appliances like clothes dryers, which require specialized outlets to accommodate a 240-volt connection.
Electrical Wiring Basics
Electrical wiring for residential applications comes in two standard sizes for most homes: 14/2 gauge, which is rated for circuit breakers up to 15 amps, and 12/2, which accommodates up to 20 amps. The thicker the wire, the more electricity it can handle. Choosing the proper size wire for your fixtures and circuit breaker are crucial, as incorrect sizing can lead to:
- Overheating and potential electrical fires in cases where the wire is too small for the load required by the breaker.
- Continuous tripping that disrupts the circuit if the wiring is too large for the breaker
Regardless of its gauge, residential electrical wiring usually consists of three wires packed into an insulated sleeve. Wires of one color must be attached to others of the same color to ensure that your circuits function.
Wire colors include:
- Copper or green signifies grounding wires, which allow unused electricity to travel from the breaker to a grounded conductor.
- Black or “hot” wires, which carry electrical current
- White or “neutral” wires, which send unused electricity back to the breaker
Some appliances require three-conductor wires and outlets, which feature a second “hot” wire that is usually red.
Performing Wire and Fixture Connections
When working with electrical systems, it is crucial to stay safe and have the right tools at hand. Wire-stripping pliers and a volt detector can help you safely strip wiring while keeping an eye out for potential live wires. Disconnect your home’s electrical power before performing any electrical work on your property. Wires are connected with matching wire nuts of the same gauge.
A simple wire connection only requires the tools mentioned above and is performed as follows:
- After shutting off your home’s power, use wire-stripping pliers to pull back insulation from wire ends.
- Hold the wires between your fingers and connect a wire nut to the assembly by turning it clockwise.
- Fixtures can be connected by attaching a matching wire from the electrical supply line to those on the fixture and sealing the connection with a wire nut.
- Many light fixtures do not feature black and white wires, but the hot and neutral wires can be found by looking at the sheathing.
Two of the most common electrical fixtures homeowners are likely to work with are wall outlets and single-pole light switches. Identifying connection areas for both wall outlets and light fixtures is simple: both feature color-coded screws. Green screws connect to ground wires, brass screws connect to hot wires, and silver screws are for neutral wires.
Outlets have a continuous electrical current, which allows devices plugged into them to operate. Outlets are usually connected in a row, much like lights on a Christmas tree. Modern “duplex” receptacles feature two sets of screws: one pulls electricity in, while the other sends it out to the next fixture.
Single-Pole Light Switches
Switches feature two brass screws on the right-hand side for hot wire connections and turn lights off by disrupting electrical flow from the wire to the fixture. One wire leads from the nearest black wire junction to the switch, while the other hot wire connects from the switch to the light fixture. White wires are connected with an appropriately-sized wire nut, while the ground wire is connected to the green screw near the bottom.
To attach a wire to an outlet or switch, bend the wire’s end into a hooked shape with needle-nose pliers. This technique allows the wiring to wrap around the screws on either side for easier securing.
Remember to research local and state regulations for homeowners performing electrical work, as well as the National Electrical Code, for guidance before you proceed. Safety is critical when it comes to electrical installation and repairs. When in doubt, do not perform the labor yourself: instead, consult with a licensed electrician.